This badge was found by our historian colleague, Dr. Wolfgang Ziegler and triggered off a search for its origin which has not yet been resolved. The central part of what is otherwise a normal Rotary lapel badge, seems to show the symbols of Freemasonry, the set square and compasses, while the letter 'G' in the centre is also an indication of the Scottish Rite of Masonry. We know that many of the early Rotarians were Masons and that, according to C.R. Hewitt in 'Towards My Neighbour', some Rotary clubs recruited exclusively from Freemasons until the practice was banned in the 1920s. To date, no precise details of these links have been found in the archives of either body.
The relationship was a matter of some discussion and in February 1923, an article in 'The Rotary Wheel' sought to allay fears among Rotarians who might think that their membership of the one could cause problems in the other.
However, many people who did not know much about these organisations, thought that Rotary was a form of Masonry. This eventually led to a much more serious problem when the Catholic Church, which had long been an antagonist of Masonry, classed Rotary as a similar organisation. Also see the Ziegler Collection G.K. Chesterton who was often a vocal critic of Rotary, was a Catholic convert. and his adherence to the sectarian line may have coloured his views.
The problems seem to have started in Spain about 1928 when the Bishops of Almeria, Leon, Orense, Palencia and Tuy laid charges that Rotary is "nothing else but a new satanic organisation with the same background and teachings of masonry" and that "according to documents and reliable sources, Rotary is a suspected organisation, and should be considered as execrable and perverse". The Church also criticised and condemned Rotary for showing a concept of life and of service without reference to church teaching. Indeed, it seems that they believed it a secret society with quasi-religious overtones as many in the Church thought was the case with Freemasonry. For whatever reason, the Vatican took up the reins and in 1929 issued a decree that "it is not expedient" for Catholic priests to participate in Rotary either as members or guests. This decree and its implications were worrying to the many Catholics in Rotary not the least the then President Tom Sutton who was himself a Catholic, and former Chancellor Germany Wilhelm Cuno, a member in Hamburg.
Critical and at times disparaging articles regularly appeared in Catholic newspapers, especially in the 'Civilta Cattolica' in Italy, and Tom Sutton went off to Rome to try to convince the Papal authorities that Rotary was not Masonic, and that it was a movement which was not in conflict with any Catholic teaching.
Sutton's attempts to convince the Secretary of State in the Vatican, Cardinal Gaspari, were fruitless and the anti-Rotary articles continued to be published. An even more virulent article later appeared in Paris in 'La France Catholique' making allegations about both Paul Harris and the links between Rotary and Freemasonry, which were later reprinted in the Baltic paper 'Rytas'.
The factual errors could be, and promptly were shown to be false, and by 1933 there was a mood swing in the Vatican, perhaps partly occasioned by the number of prominent and influential Catholics throughout the world who were joining Rotary. Priests were now allowed to use their discretion about attending or even joining Rotary. Nevertheless, one of the results of the Church's attitude was the slow development of Rotary in some predominantly Catholic countries such as Ireland.
This uneasy peace continued until 1951 when another Vatican decree warned priests that they should not join Rotary and that "the faithful should be aware of seditious and suspected organisations".
By then, however, the world had changed and the decree caused an immediate angry response, among others from the then Catholic President of RI, Arthur Laqueux, and from the Rotarian Catholic Bishop of Fort Wayne, Indiana, who publicly declared the decree "quite incomprehensible".
Fairly soon, the Vatican began to retract. The official newspaper 'Osservatore Romano' wrote "In some nations, because of a prevalent Masonic influx, the action of Rotary Clubs has conflicted with the activity and the needs of the Church. It must be said, however, that such has not been the case in other nations where the attitude of Rotary has shown itself in practice tolerant and benevolent towards religious interests."
By the end of the decade, the Catholic Truth Society was able to declare that "Rotary is neither secret nor seditious". It was nevertheless still regarded as a "society banned under pain of sin only" and not of "sin and excommunication". Gradually there was a thaw in relations between the Church and Rotary. In 1970 Pope Pius VI addressed Rotarians in Italy, and in 1979 Pope John Paul II spoke to the International Convention in Rome, praising some of Rotary's humanitarian programmes at a special audience in the Vatican. Later he accepted a Paul Harris Fellowship and a World Understanding and Peace Award from Rotary, while Catholic priests throughout the world were taking positions of authority, even serving as District Governors.
As Alvarez points out, it was not only Rotary that was condemned during the 1930s and 1940s. The Lions Clubs and even the YMCA incurred the wrath of the Vatican. In fact, the condemnation of the Y.M.C.A. was even earlier in 1920 when it was described as "White Masonry", on the grounds that "such organisation, while showing special concern for the youth, corrupted their faith, teaching them a conception of life dispensing with the Church and all religious teachings. The Y.M.C.A. is contributing to the decay of the youth's faith, by affirming that its purpose is to show them a conception of life without churches or religious confession".
Basil Lewis Based on Nicholl's 'The Golden Wheel', Juan Alvarez's excellent analysis of 'Masonry in Latin America', RIBI's 'The Rotary Wheel' and other published works. Also see, Rotarian Lodge #4195 A letter on this subject from Paul Harris (left) The following was provided by RGHF historian Calum Thomson: 18 May 2006 Paul Harris said the following: "fraternity without rituals, passwords and secrets". Source - Jeffrey Charles: 'Service Clubs in American Society' chapter 1 entitled "From Fraternity to Service".
The quote is derived from Paul Harris' promotional brochures which were distributed to the early (potential) members of ROTARY/One.
Charles concludes his paragraph by stating "Harris' organization promised an informality and exclusivity that fraternalism could not match."
You can perform your own search at www.historysearch.org
Further to the piece about Masons and Rotary
Prince Conti, District Governor of D46 (Italy) in 1928 wrote: "Lately a few Catholic papers have shown doubts as to the origin and the work of our Association; and worse than that, they have tried to trace relations between Rotary and Masonry. These doubts of the Catholic press are not in the least just, and many Catholic priests belong to Rotary. We are sorry that such doubts exist, but we are not troubled, because we know perfectly well that no tie exists between the two Associations, and that in all our manifestations there is not one single thing that is not compatible with our consciences as Catholics and Italians and Fascists.
As the General President, Harry Rogers declared at the International Convention at Ostend, no tie has ever existed, exists, or will ever exist between the two associations. As President of Italian Rotary I declare that I would not remain in this position one hour if I had any doubts on this subject.
In this extract from an article in 'Rotary Wheel' in December 1928, Prince Conti hints at the problems Rotary was encountering in Italy as it was in Spain and Ireland.
From RGHF senior historian Basil Lewis
, UK, 15 July 2008
Pietro Brunoldi (with help from Wolfgang Ziegler) writes on 22 July 2008:
Prince Piero Ginori Conti was NOT a President of the Rotary in Italy, but simply District Governor in 1928-29 (District 46), representing the district newborn in the year 1925. So, probably there was a misunderstanding (or bad translation) when he wrote District Governor..... probably by someone who didn't know the meaning of DG and interpreted it as President.