Jesus was Jewish and so were all the first disciples.
Jesus is the Greek translation of Joshua (Yeshua)
Mary is the Greek Translation of 'Miryam' (Moses's sister's name)
Joseph is the Greek translation of 'Yosef'
John is the Greek translation of 'Yochanan'
Matthew is the Greek translation of 'Mattityahu'.
Paul is the Greek translation of 'Sha'ul'
King James Version
Paul (Sha'ul) Preaches from the Torah
Isaiah Prophesys about Messiah
When I was in boot camp in 1990 I prayed for a dream of Jesus three nights in a row. On the third night God answered my prayer and gave me the dream. In the dream I had real thoughts. It wasn't just a dream. It was a vision. The dream started off with me walking into a building. All the way in the front was the Lord shining bright with a white light. He was standing there with the left side of His profile facing me. When I looked at Him I immediately knew He was Jewish.
He looked just like the Orthodox Jews I used to see walking to Synagogue on the sabbath. (Being raised Catholic the reality that Jesus was Jewish never struck me this way. I seemed to separate the Jewish people from Jesus because in my town where I was raised they didn't believe Jesus was their Messiah.)
In my dream He then slowly turned and looked at me. When He looked at me. I knew he knew everything I ever did. I was filled with shame and embarrassment. I turned to leave and when I did a light flashed in my eyes and blinded me. When I opened them again I was laid flat on my face at Jesus's feet. I slowly looked up in awe. He looked down on me with the most incredible look of mercy.
Seven Years Later I became a born again Christian. I was gloriously saved by the Lord God who created all things through His Son Jesus (Yeshua) Christ (Messiah).
("For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace." Isaiah 9:6)
He revealed Himself to me through His Word the Bible. What filled me with faith was the fulfillment of prophecies from the Old testament. I knew that the Jews believed in the Old Testament but not the New. So it made it all the more powerful. Because I saw in their own writings who the Messiah would be and what he would do and I saw the fulfillment of these things written in the New Testament.
I'm so thankful to the Lord because he fulfilled His promise through Abraham that through his seed (Abraham's descendants) that all the nations on earth would be blessed.
15 And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, 16 And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: 17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; 18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.
Gen 12: 1-3
1 Now the LORD had said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's house, unto a land that I will shew thee:
2 And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing:
3 And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee: and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed.
Also you can see the verses from the prophet Jeremiah stating that there will be a New Covenant (Testament).
Jeremiah 31:31- 34
31 Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah:
32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was a husband unto them, saith Jehovah.
33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith Jehovah: I will put my law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people:
34 and they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, Know Jehovah; for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Jehovah: for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more.
Desperate atheists and other unbelievers, seeking a way to circumvent the fact of fulfilled prophecy and its connotations, have argued that the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies in the New Testament were “accidental,” “chance,” or “coincidental.” But when a number of details are given, the “chance fulfillment” of prophecy is ruled out.
One writer says, “It is conceivable that a prediction, uttered at a venture, and expressing what, in a general way, may happen to result, may seem like a genuine prophecy. But only let the prophecy give several DETAILS of time, place, and accompanying incidents, and it is evident that the possibility of a ‘chance fulfillment,’ by a ‘fortuitous concurrence of events,’ will become extremely desperate—yea, altogether impossible.”
The prophecies of heathen antiquity always took good care to confine their predictions to one or two particulars and to express them in the most general and ambiguous terms. Throughout all history, except for the prophecies of Scripture, there is not a single instance of a prediction, expressed in unequivocal language and descending any minute detail, which bears the slightest claim to being fulfilled.
Suppose that there were only fifty prophecies in the Old Testament (instead of hundreds) concerning the first advent of Christ, giving details of the coming Messiah. All meet in the person of Jesus. The probability of “chance fulfillment” as calculated by mathematicians using the theory of probabilities is less than one in 1,125,000,000,000,000.
If you add only two more elements to these fifty prophecies, and fix the TIME and the PLACE at which they must happen, the immense improbability that they will take place by chance exceeds all the power of numbers to express (or the mind of man to grasp). This is enough, one would think, to dismiss all pleas for chance from unbelievers, giving them no opportunity to escape from the evidence of prophecy.
Let it be further observed that many of the prophecies about the Messiah are of such a nature that only God could fulfill them, such as His virgin birth, His sinless and holy perfection, His resurrection, and His ascension. Only GOD could cause Jesus to be born of a virgin or be raised from the dead.
IN THE OLD TESTAMENT there is a definite, clear, and continuous teaching that the “Messiah will come.” Dozens of times we read such promises as “Behold, thy King cometh unto thee” (Zech. 9:9), “The Lord God will come” (Isa. 40:10), “The Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to His temple” (Mal. 3:1), and “The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee” (Deut. 18:15). Isaiah told of the “rod out of the stem of Jesse” (Isa. 11:1) on whom the Lord would lay the iniquity of us all (Isa. 53:6). Prophets and seers of old often spoke of the time when “the desire of all nations” would come (Hag. 2:7, also Gen. 3:15, 49:10, Num. 24:17, Psa. 2:6, 118:26, Isa. 35:4, 62:11, Jer. 23:5-6).
A BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE PROPHECIES
Let us briefly trace a few of the outstanding similarities in correspondences between Old Testament prediction and New Testament fulfillment. The work of redemption was to be accomplished by one person who was the central figure in both Testaments, the promised Messiah. As the “Seed of the woman,” He was to bruise Satan’s head (Gen. 3:15 with Gal. 4:4). As the Seed of Abraham (Gen. 22:18 with Gal. 3:16) and the Seed of David (Psa. 132:11, Jer. 23:5 with Acts 13:23), He was to come from the tribe of Judah (Gen. 49:10 with Heb. 7:14).
He was to come at a specified time (Gen. 49:10, Dan. 9:24-25 with Gal. 4:4) and be born of a virgin (Isa. 7:14 with Matt. 1:18-23; also Luke 1:27, 35), in Bethlehem of Judaea (Micah 5:2 with Matt. 2:1, Luke 2:4-6). Great persons were to visit and adore Him (Psa. 72:10 with Matt. 2:1, 11). Through the rage of a jealous king, innocent children were to be slaughtered (Jer. 31:15 with Matt. 2:16-18).
He was to be preceded by a forerunner, John the Baptist, before entering His public ministry (Isa. 40:3, Mal. 3:1 with Matt. 3:1-3 and Luke 1:17)
He was to be a prophet like Moses (Deut. 18:18 with Acts 3:20-22) and have a special anointing of the Holy Spirit (Psa. 45:7, Isa. 11:2-4, 61:1-3 with John 3:34-36, Matt. 3:16-17; Luke 4:15-19, 43). He was to be a priest after the order of Melchisedec (Psa. 110:4 with Heb. 5:5-10). As the “Servant of the Lord,” He was to be a faithful and patient redeemer, for the Gentiles as well as the Jews (Gen. 17:5, Isa. 42:1, 6 with Matt. 12:18, 21).
His ministry was to begin in Galilee (Isa. 9:1-2 with Matt. 4:12-17, 23); later, He was to enter Jerusalem (Zech. 9:9 with Matt. 21:1-10) to bring salvation. He was to enter the temple (Hag. 2:7, 9, Mal. 3:1-2 with Matt. 21:12, I Cor. 3:16-17, 6:19, II Cor. 6:16-18, Eph. 2:18-22, Rev. 3:20).
His zeal for the Lord is spoken of in both Testaments (Psa. 69:9 with John 2:15-17). His manner of teaching was to be by parables (Psa. 78:2 with Matt. 13:34-35), and His ministry was to be characterized by miracles (Isa. 35:5-6 with Matt. 11:4-5, John 11:47). He was to be rejected by His brethren (Psa. 69:8, Isa. 53:3 with John 1:11, 7:5), to be a “stone of stumbling” to the Jews and a “rock of offence” (Isa. 8:14 with Rom. 9:32-33, I Pet. 2:7-8).
He was to be hated without a cause (Psa. 22:6-20, Isa. Ch. 53, Zech. 12:10, Psa. 69:4, Isa. 49:7 with John 15:18-25, Matt. 2:13, 26:67-68, 27:28-44, Mark 8:31, Luke 4:28-29, 23:5, 10-11, John 8:37, Ch. 19), rejected by the rulers (Psa. 118:22 with Matt. 21:42-46, John 7:48-53), betrayed by a friend (Psa. 41:9 with John 13:18, 21), forsaken by His disciples (Zech. 13:7 with Matt. 26:31-56) and sold for thirty pieces of silver (Zech. 11:12 with Matt. 26:15). The price paid for Him was to be given for the potter’s field (Zech. 11:13 with Matt. 27:7). He was to be smitten on the cheek (Micah 5:1 with Matt. 27:30), spat on (Isa. 50:6 with Matt. 27:30), mocked (Psa. 22:7-8 with Matt. 27:28-31, 39-44), and beaten (Isa. 50:6 with Matt. 26:67, 27:26, 30).5
His death by crucifixion is given in detail in Psalm 22, and the meaning of His death, as a substitutionary atonement for our sins, is given in Isaiah 53. His hands and His feet were to be pierced (Psa. 22:16, Zech. 12:10 with John 19:18, 37, 20:25), yet not a bone of Him was to be broken (Ex. 12:46, Psa. 34:20 with John 19:33-36). He was to suffer thirst (Psa. 22:15 with John 19:28) and be given vinegar to drink (Psa. 69:21 with Matt. 27:34), and He was to be numbered with the transgressors (Isa. 53:12 with Matt. 27:38).
His body was to be buried with the rich in His death (Isa. 53:9 with Matt. 27:57-60), but was not to see corruption (Psa. 16:10 with Acts 2:31).
He was to be raised from the dead (Psa. 16:10 with Matt. Ch. 28, Mark Ch. 16, Luke Ch. 24, John Ch. 20 and Acts 13:33) and ascend to the right hand of God (Psa. 68:18 with Luke 24:51, Acts 1:9; also, Psa. 110:1 with Heb. 1:3).
This bare sketch of Old Testament Messianic prophecy with its New Testament fulfillment is, of course, far from complete; it is merely suggestive, though we have covered many of the main points. Remember, there are actually hundreds of predictions concerning the coming Messiah in the Old Testament!